Staphylococcus Aureus

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Staphylococcus aureus is Gram-positive, non-motile, spherical bacterium that frequently found on the nose, respiratory tract and skin. They are facultative anaerobes and can grow in temperature between 18 ºC and 40 ºC. They are usually not pathogenic, but can cause serious infections if they enter bloodstream or internal tissue. S. aureus is the leading cause of skin and respiratory infections such as abscess, cellulitis, and sinusitis, as well as food poisoning. It can also lead to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome, and meningitis.

Preparing food while having open wounds on hands, finger, or wrists can possibly infect the food with S. aureus. Food poisoning from this bacteria is because of the exotoxins secreted by it. Toxic shock syndrome can have symptoms such as high fever, hypotension, and diarrhea, and can progress rapidly to cause complications that can lead to death.

The antibiotics such as penicillin is used for the treatment of this bacteria. However, the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 1961 is making the treatment of this bacteria becoming very challenging. MRSA is unable to be killed by all beta-lactam antibiotics that include penicillin and cephalosporins.