Vibrio Cholerae

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Vibrio cholerae is Gram-negative bacterium that naturally found in saltwater. This facultative anaerobe has flagellum that enables it to be motile. The serotypes of this bacteria, O1 and O139 are the cause of cholera, with major symptoms of watery diarrhea, leg cramps, and vomiting. Without quick treatment, death can occur within few hours.

The first pandemic of cholera began in India and dispersed to Southeast Asia in 18th century. Cholera is still occurring in places with inadequate water treatment, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene, especially in Africa. Cholera is responsible for about 2.9 millions of cases and 95, 000 deaths each year around the world.